Influence of anatoxin-a tested on zebrafish and fathead minnows

Differential influences of (±) anatoxin-a on photolocomotor behavior and gene transcription in larval zebrafish and fathead minnows






Though anatoxin-a (antx-a) is a globally important cyanobacterial neurotoxin in inland waters, information on sublethal toxicological responses of aquatic organisms is limited. We examined influences of (±) antx-a (11–3490 µg/L) on photolocomotor behavioral responses and gene transcription associated with neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity, in two of the most common alternative vertebrate and fish models, Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). We selected environmentally relevant treatment levels from probabilistic exposure distributions, employed standardized experimental designs, and analytically verified treatment levels using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Caffeine was examined as a positive control.


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