Differential responses of larval zebrafish to the fungicide propamocarb: Endpoints at development, locomotor behavior and oxidative stress

Authors : Xin Liu, Rui Zhang, Yuanxiang Jin

Institute of standardization, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China


The fungicide propamocarb (PM) is widely used to protect cucumbers, tomatoes and other plants from pathogens. According to previous studies, PM could be detected in the aquatic system in some area. However, the toxic effects of PM on zebrafish received very limited attention. In this study, we examined the toxic effects of various concentration of PM on the endpoints of development, locomotor behavior and oxidative stress in larval zebrafish. It was observed that PM exposure delayed embryonic development, inhibited hatchability at 60 and 72 h postfertilization and increased heart rate. After PM exposure, the larval zebrafish showed abnormal free swimming behavior and the swimming behavior in response to light-dark transition, indicating that PM had the potential to induce neurotoxicity. Moreover, PM exposure also affected the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase and dopamine and the transcriptional level of genes related to neurotoxicity. In addition, PM exposure not only affects catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity but also affects the transcription level of various genes. We believed that PM induced oxidative stress was also a possible reason to cause neurotoxicity in larval zebrafish. In summary, our results suggested that PM could disturb the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior and oxidative stress in larval zebrafish.