Assessment of the ecotoxicity of the pharmaceuticals bisoprolol, sotalol, and ranitidine using standard and behavioral endpoints


The pharmaceuticals bisoprolol (BIS), sotalol (SOT), and ranitidine (RAN) are among the most consumed pharmaceuticals worldwide and are frequently detected in different aquatic ecosystems. However, very few ecotoxicity data are available in the literature for them. To help fill these data gaps, toxicity tests with the algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, the macrophyte Lemna minor, the cnidarian Hydra attenuata, the crustacean Daphnia similis, and the fish Danio rerio were performed for assessing the ecotoxicity of these pharmaceuticals. Standard, as well as non-standard endpoint, was evaluated, including the locomotor behavior of D. rerio larvae. Results obtained for SOT and RAN showed that acute adverse effects are not expected to occur on aquatic organisms at the concentrations at which these pharmaceuticals are usually found in fresh surface waters. On the other hand, BIS was classified as hazardous to the environment in the acute III category. Locomotor behavior of D. rerio larvae was not affected by BIS and RAN. A disturbance on the total swimming distance at the dark cycle was observed only for larvae exposed to the highest test concentration of 500 mg L−1 of SOT. D. similis reproduction was affected by BIS with an EC10 of 3.6 (0.1–34.0) mg L−1. A risk quotient (RQ) of 0.04 was calculated for BIS in fresh surface water, considering a worst-case scenario. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first chronic toxicity data with BIS on non-target organisms.


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