Changes in the hippocampal and peripheral phospholipid profiles are associated with neurodegeneration hallmarks in a long-term global cerebral ischemia model: Attenuation by Linalool


Phospholipid alterations in the brain are associated with progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment after acute and chronic injuries. Various types of treatments have been evaluated for their abilities to block the progression of the impairment, but effective treatments targeting long-term post-stroke alterations are not available. In this study, we analyzed changes in the central and peripheral phospholipid profiles in ischemic rats and determined whether a protective monoterpene, Linalool, could modify them. We used an in vitro model of glutamate (125 μM) excitotoxicity and an in vivo global ischemia model in Wistar rats. Linalool (0.1 μM) protected neurons and astrocytes by reducing LDH release and restoring ATP levels. Linalool was administered orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg every 24 h for a month, behavioral tests were performed, and a lipidomic analysis was conducted using mass spectrometry. Animals treated with Linalool displayed faster neurological recovery than untreated ischemic animals, accompanied by better motor and cognitive performances. These results were confirmed by the significant reduction in astrogliosis, microgliosis and COX-2 marker, involving a decrease of 24:0 free fatty acid in the hippocampus. The altered profiles of phospholipids composed of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PC 36:1; 42:1 (24:0/18:1)/LPC 22:6)/LPE 22:6) in the ischemic hippocampus and the upregulation of PI 36:2 and other LCFA (long chain fatty acids) in the serum of ischemic rats were prevented by the monoterpene. Based on these data, alterations in the central and peripheral phospholipid profiles after long-term was attenuated by oral Linalool, promoting a phospholipid homeostasis, related to the recovery of brain function.


Ischemia; Phospholipids; Neurodegeneration hallmarks; Linalool; Functional recovery