Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo Biloba dropping pills in Parkinson's disease


Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world; however, it lacks effective and safe treatments. Ginkgo biloba dropping pill (GBDP), a unique Chinese G. biloba leaf extract preparation, exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective effects and has potential as an alternative therapy for PD. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the effects of GBDP in in vitro and in vivo PD models and 2) to compare the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of GBDP and the G. biloba extract EGb 761. Using LC-MS, 46 GBDP constituents were identified. Principal component analysis identified differences in the chemical profiles of GBDP and EGb 761. A quantitative analysis of 12 constituents showed that GBDP had higher levels of several flavonoids and terpene trilactones than EGb 761, whereas EGb 761 had higher levels of organic acids. Moreover, we found that GBDP prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuron loss in zebrafish and improved cognitive impairment and neuronal damage in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced PD mice. Although similar effects were observed after EGb 761 treatment, the neuroprotective effects were greater after GBDP treatment on several endpoints. In addition, in vitro results suggested that the Akt/GSK3β pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects of GBDP. These findings demonstrated that GBDP have potential neuroprotective effects in the treatment of PD.